COURT-ADMISSIBLE

Yes

GENERAL BUSINESS USE

Yes

E-SIGNATURE LEGAL MODEL

Tiered

General Business Use (Yes)

Whilst 100% legal; there are exceptions for very specific types of transactions. It is still up to the discretion of the independent user, or governing body, whether they are used or not. As each business needs are different and the agreements themselves may vary. We always advise you to speak with an authority within your businesses category.

Court-Admissible (Yes)

Each country has its own regulations that determine whether an electronic signature is seen as legal or not. So, as long as your electronic signature adheres to these, a signature won’t be rejected simply for not being handwritten.

e-Signature Legal Model (Tiered)

Russia’s legal model is a tiered one. This means that Qualified Electronic Signatures are seen as a legal type of e-signature. This doesn’t mean that a non-QES e-Signature can’t be submitted in court, but it will need extra evidence to support it.

eSignature Legality Summary

eSignatures are legally valid and admissible in the court of law. Russia has legally accepted electronic signatures since the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 63-FZ “On Electronic Signature” was passed on 6th April 2011. Under Russian law, a written signature is not necessarily required for a valid contract – contracts are generally valid if legally competent parties reach an agreement, whether they agree in a physical paper document and in some instances electronically or verbally (Clauses 158 – 160 of Russian Civil Code). To substantiate a valid contract, parties sometimes have to present evidence (a document signed with an e-signature) in the court.
*The information on this site is “AS IS” and for general information purposes only.

emSigner Supports Following Use Cases for Standard Electronic Signatures (SES)

Use cases apply only if the parties to the agreement have agreed (in advance) to contract electronically:

 

  • *Commercial agreements between corporate entities like NDAs, procurement documents, sales agreements
  • *Consumer agreements including new retail account opening documents
  • *Short-term real estate documents like lease agreements, purchase and sales contracts, and other related documentation for residential and commercial real estate

Use Cases That Are Not Supported or Typically Not Appropriate for Electronic Signatures or Digital Transaction Management Using emSigner

Following are the use cases that are specifically not supported for digital orelectronic processes or that includes requirements wherein wet ink or handwritten signatures or formal notarization is required.

 

  • *Power of attorney, which requires notarization
  • *Documents requiring state registration, such as long-term real estate or rent agreement

 

“Digital Signature” means a transformation of a message using an asymmetric cryptosystem such that a person having the initial message and the signer’s public key can accurately determine


(a) whether the transformation was created using the private key that corresponds to the signer’s public key; and
(b) whether the message has been altered since the transformation was made

DISCLAIMER: This information is intended to help you understand the legal framework of electronic signatures. However, eMudhra cannot provide legal advice. The law of electronic signatures is constantly evolving. This guide is not intended as a legal advice and should not serve as a substitute for professional legal advice. You should consult an attorney regarding any specific legal concerns.
eMudhra, and all associates including agents, officers, employees or affiliates, are not liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary or consequential damages.

ABOUT THE GUIDE

The eSignature Legality Guide is the result of legal research into the laws and practices regarding eSignature on a country-by-country basis. Each country-level analysis was conducted by local law firms located in that country, in that country’s local language. This legal analysis was then supplemented with complementary research on eSignature and digital signature technology standards conducted by independent technology experts. Together, this information is provided as a public resource to understand eSignature legality, and clarify some of the common misconceptions about international eSignature legality.

COURT-ADMISSIBLE

A basic measure of eSignature legality in a country is whether courts will admit eSignatures as evidence in court. In most countries in the world, an eSignature cannot be rejected simply because it is electronic, meaning that it should be admissible, subject to proof. Learn more about how DocuSign helps you prove an eSignature validity in court, below.

GENERAL BUSINESS USE

While there are exceptions for very specific types of transactions, eSignatures, independent of the underlying technology, may be used for the majority of general business transactions in most countries. Issues that may restrict general business use include local technology requirements or other restrictions on special transactions types. Learn more about specific transaction types, below.

E-SIGNATURE LEGAL MODEL

‘Tiered’ countries recognize Qualified Electronic Signature (QES, or the locally named equivalent) as a distinct type of eSignature. In these countries, a QES has special legal status in the form of presumed authenticity, and may be legally required for a few, specific transaction types. In spite of this, a non-QES eSignature can still be submitted as evidence in court even in Tiered countries, so long as the party presenting it has sufficient evidence to prove that it is valid. Countries imposing QES standards often struggle to promote electronic business transactions, especially across country borders. ‘Open’ countries have no such technology requirements or eSignature types that receive special legal status. Learn more about eSignature legality at https://www.emsigner.com/

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