COURT-ADMISSIBLE

Yes

GENERAL BUSINESS USE

Yes

E-SIGNATURE LEGAL MODEL

Tiered

General Business Use (Yes)

Whilst 100% legal; there are exceptions for very specific types of transactions. It is still up tthe discretion of the independent user, or governing body, whether they are used or not. As each business needs are different and the agreements themselves may vary. We always advise you tspeak with an authority within your businesses category.

Court-Admissible (Yes)

Each country has its own regulations that determine whether an electronic signature is seen as legal or not. So, as long as your electronic signature adheres tthese, a signature won’t be rejected simply for not being handwritten.

e-Signature Legal Model (Tiered)

European Union model is a tiered one. This means that Qualified Electronic Signatures are seen as a legal type of e-signature. This doesn’t mean that a non-QES e-Signature can’t be submitted in court, but it will need extra evidence tsupport it.

eSignature Legality Summary

eSignatures are admissible in the court of law and the European Union. Electronic signatures and related trust services are regulated by the Regulation (EU) N°910/2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market (eIDAS Regulation). The regulations came into effect in the year 2014 with the central provision of the directive in article 5 which requires electronic signatures tbe regarded as equivalent twritten signatures.

Member States of the European Union shall ensure that advanced electronic signatures provided by a qualified certified authority are created by a secure-signature-creation device and must satisfy:

(a) The legal requirements of a signature concerning data in electronic form in the same manner as a handwritten signature satisfies those requirements concerning paper-based data; and

(b) Are admissible as evidence in legal proceedings

*The information on this site is “AS IS” and for general information purposes only.

emSigner Supports Following Use Cases for Standard Electronic Signatures (SES)

  • HR documents, such as employment contracts, benefits paperwork and other new employee onboarding processes
  • Commercial agreements between corporate entities, including NDAs, procurement documents, sales agreements
  • Consumer agreements, including new retail account opening documents
  • Real estate documents, including lease agreements for residential and commercial real estate not lasting for a period of more than 20 years

emSigner Works With the Local Trust Service Providers and Supports Following Use Cases for Qualified Electronic Signature (QES)

  • When a signature is required by law, but the law does not specify the type of signature required, it can only be signed with an advanced electronic signature as defined by ECTA, which is, in practice, equivalent ta QES in Europe.

Use Cases That Are Not Supported or Typically Not Appropriate for Electronic Signatures or Digital Transaction Management Using emSigner

Following are the use cases that are specifically not supported for digital or electronic processes or that includes requirements wherein wet ink or handwritten signatures or formal notarization is required.

 

  • Contracts for transfer or sale of immovable property, including sectional titles and mortgage bonds (excluded from ECTA)
  • All handwritten
    • Wills and codicils (excluded from ECTA)
    • Wills and codicils (excluded from ECTA)
    • Bills of exchange (e.g., cheques) (excluded from ECTA)
    • License of intellectual property, IP transfers and employee invention agreements (Patents Act, 1978, the Design Act, 1993, the Trade Marks Act, 1993 and the Copyright Act 1978)

Regulatory Bodies & Certifying Authorities:

 

Institute Trusted Service providers Countries Website
A-Trust Gesellschaft für Sicherheitssysteme im elektronischen Datenverkehr GmbH Yes Austria https://www.a-trust.at/
PrimeSign GmbH Yes Austria https://www.prime-sign.com/
Datenverkehr GmbH Yes Austria https://www.rtr.at/en
Swisscom IT Services Finance S.E. Yes Austria https://www.swisscom.ch/en/about.html
PrimeSign GmbH Yes Austria http://www.e-monitoring.at/
Belgian Mobile ID SA/NV Yes Belgium https://www.belgianmobileid.be/en
Certipost n.v./s.a. Yes Belgium https://www.certipost.org/
Connect Solutions Yes Belgium https://connectbestsolutionsllc.com/
GlobalSign NV/SA Yes Belgium https://www.globalsign.com/en
Portima s.c.r.l. c.v.b.a. Yes Belgium https://www.portisign.be/nl
QuoVadis Trustlink BVBA Yes Belgium https://www.quovadisglobal.be/
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication SCRL Yes Belgium https://www.swift.com/
Universign Yes Belgium https://www.universign.com/en/
Zetes S.A./N.V. Yes Belgium https://www.zetes.com/en
BORICA AD Yes Bulgaria https://www.borica.bg/en
Evrotrust Technologies JSC Yes Bulgaria https://www.evrotrust.com/landing/en
InfoNotary PLCS Yes Bulgaria https://www.infonotary.com/site/en/?p=doc_g1_1
Information Services Plc. Yes Bulgaria https://www.is-bg.net/en
System for electronic payments Bulgaria Yes Bulgaria https://www.epay.bg/v3main/front?p=about&lang=en#:~:text=The%20Bulgarian%20electronic%20payment%20system,was%20launched%20in%20October%201999.&text=The%20main%20activity%20of%20EPay,security%20of%20Internet%2Dtransmitted%20information.
AKD d.o.o. Yes Croatia https://www.akd.hr/
First certification authority, a.s. Yes >Croatia https://www.fina.hr/
Zagrebačka banka dioničko drštvo Yes Croatia https://www.zaba.hr/home/o-nama/sustav-certificiranja-zagrebacke-banke
JCC PAYMENT SYSTEMS LTD Yes Cyprus https://www.jcc.com.cy/
First certification authority, a.s. Yes >Czech Republic https://www.first.org/ca/#:~:text=FIRST.Org%20Certification%20Authority&text=For%20this%20purpose%20FIRST.ORG,fingerprint%20information%20and%20revocation%20lists.
National Registers Authority Yes Czech Republic https://censusindia.gov.in/2011-Common/NRIC.html
SEFIRA spol. s r.o. Yes Czech Republic https://www.sefira.cz/en/home/
SEFIRA spol. s r.o. Yes Czech Republic https://www.602.cz/en/
The Czech Post, s.p. Yes Czech Republic https://www.ceskaposta.cz/en/index
eIdentity a.s. Yes Czech Republic https://www.eidentity.cz/
Nets DanID A/S Yes Denmark https://www.nets.eu/
GuardTime O OÜ Yes Estnoia https://guardtime.com/
SK ID Solutions AS Yes Estnoia https://www.skidsolutions.eu/en
Digital and Population Data Services Agency Yes Finland https://dvv.fi/en/digital-and-population-data-services-agency
AR24 QeRDS Yes France https://www.ar24.fr/syndic/la-reglementation-eidas-un-changement-necessaire-de-la-loi-europeenne-explications/
Agence Nationale des Titres Sécurisés QCert for ESig Yes France https://ants.gouv.fr/
Caisse des dépôts et consignations QCert for ESig Yes France https://cdcarkhineo.com/en/
CLEARBUS QTimestampQeRDS France France https://www.arubanetworks.com/techdocs/ClearPass/6.8/PolicyManager/Content/CPPM_UserGuide/Monitoring/accessTracker.html
ChamberSign France QCert for ESigQCert for ESeal Yes France https://www.caissedesdepots.fr/en/you-are-investor
Conseil Supérieur du Notariat QCert for ESigQTimestamp Yes France https://pc.chambersign.fr/en/docs/
Docusign France QCert for ESigQCert for ESealQTimestamp Yes France https://www.notaires.fr/en/notarial-profession/bodies-representing-french-notaries/high-council-notarial-profession
Le Groupe La Poste QTimestampQeRDS Yes France https://www.docusign.com/trust/compliance/public-certificates
TESSI DOCUMENTS SERVICES QeRDS Yes France https://www.groupelaposte.com/en
1&1 De-Mail GmbH Yes France https://www.tessi.eu/
Yousign  Yes France https://yousign.com/
e-commerce monitoring GmbH Yes Germany https://de-mail-register.1und1.de/1und1-De-Mail;jsessionid=8E22857C170428A629F72F3AC070F486.sMO4Af1hzu0zpZKnLGt8tMbOdg8?0
Atos Information Technology GmbH Yes Germany https://atos.net/de/deutschland/impressum
Bank-Verlag GmbH Yes Germany https://www.bank-verlag.de/index.php?id=17
Bundesagentur fuer Arbeit Yes Germany https://www.arbeitsagentur.de/en/welcome
Bundesnetzagentur Yes Germany https://www.bundesnetzagentur.de/EN/Home/home_node.html
Bundesnetzagentur Yes Germany https://www.bnotk.de/
D-Trust GmbH Yes Germany https://www.bundesdruckerei.de/de/53-support-fuer-behoerden-buerger-unternehmen
DGN Deutsches Gesundheitsnetz Service GmbH Yes Germany https://www.dgn.de/
Deutsche Post AG Yes Germany https://www.dpdhl.com/en.html
Deutsche Telekom AG Yes Germany https://www.telekom.com/en
T-Systems International GmbH Yes Germany https://www.t-systems.com/in/en
exceet Secure Solutions GmbH Yes Germany https://www.exceet-secure-solutions.de/
medisign GmbH Yes Germany https://www.medisign.de/
ADACOM ADVANCED INTERNET APPLICATIONS S.A. Yes Greece https://www.eudir21.com/en/company-detail/668826-adacom-advanced-internet-applications-sa
BYTE Computer S.A. Yes Greece https://www.byte.gr/en/
Greek Universities Network (GUnet) Yes Greece https://www.gunet.gr/en/#:~:text=The%20Greek%20Universities%20Network%20and,Academic%20Institutions%20(25%20Universities).
HELLENIC EXCHANGES – ATHENS STOCK EXCHANGE SA Yes Greece https://www.athexgroup.gr/
HELLENIC PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CERTIFICATION AUTHORITY Yes Greece https://pki.ermis.gov.gr/repository_en.html
Digitoll Information Technology and Servicing Ltd. Yes Hungary http://ds.digitoll.co.hu/en/kapcsolat.php
Magyar Telekom Public Limited Company Yes Hungary https://www.telekom.hu/about_us
Microsec Micro Software Engineering &Consulting Private Company Limited by Shares Yes Hungary https://www.microsec.hu/en/microsec
NETLOCK Informatics and Network Privacy services Limited Company Yes Hungary https://www.netlock.hu/USEREN/html/cacrl.html
NISZ National Infocommunications Services Company Limited by Shares Yes Hungary https://nisz.hu/en/about_us
Audkenni ehf. Yes Iceland https://www.audkenni.is/en/
Adobe Systems Software Ireland Ltd. Yes Iceland https://www.adobe.com
TrustPro QTSP Ltd Yes Iceland https://www.trustpro.eu/
Actalis S.p.A. Yes Iceland https://www.actalis.it/products/ssl-certificate.aspx
Aruba Posta Elettronica Certificata S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.pec.it/chi-siamo.aspx
Azienda Regionale per l’Innovazione e gli Acquisti S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.ariaspa.it/wps/portal/site/aria
Azienda Zero Yes Italy https://www.azero.veneto.it/
Banca d’Italia Yes Italy https://www.bancaditalia.it/
CEDACRI S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.cedacri.it/cedacri/en/chi-siamo/cedacri/
Consiglio Nazionale dei Dottori Commercialisti e degli Esperti Contabili Yes Italy https://commercialisti.it/
Consiglio Nazionale del Notariato Yes Italy https://www.notariato.it/
In.Te.S.A. S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.intesa.it/en/
InfoCert S.p.A. Yes Italy https://infocert.digital/
Intesa Sanpaolo Bank S.p.A. Yes Italy https://group.intesasanpaolo.com/en/about-us
Intesi Group S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.intesigroup.com/en/
Lottomatica Holding S.r.l. Yes Italy https://www.lottomaticaitalia.it/en/about-us/company/cda
Ministero dell’Interno Yes Italy https://nullaostalavoro.dlci.interno.it/Ministero/Index2
Ministero della Difesa Yes Italy https://www.difesa.it/Pagine/default.aspx
Namirial S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.namirial.com/en/
Nexi Payments S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.nexi.it/en.html
Poste Italiane S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.poste.it/
Register S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.register.it/?lang=en
Telecom Italia Trust Technologies S.r.l. Yes Italy https://www.trusttechnologies.it/
Zucchetti S.p.A. Yes Italy https://www.zucchetti.com/worldwide/cms/home.html
Latvian State Radio and Television center
Latvian State Radio and Television center 
Yes Latvia https://www.lvrtc.lv/company.html
FLZ-Anstalt Yes Latvia https://www.flz.li/
Office for Communications Yes Latvia https://www.vases.lv/en
Identity Documents Personalisation Centre under the Ministry of the Interior Yes Lithuania https://adic.lrv.lt/en/
State Enterprise Centre of Registers Yes Lithuania https://www.registrucentras.lt/en/
UAB BalTstamp Yes Lithuania https://www.baltstamp.lt/en/
UAB Dokobit Yes Lithuania https://www.dokobit.com/company/contacts
BE INVEST International S.A. Yes Lithuania https://www.editus.lu/en/be-invest-international-sa-strassen-1666705
LuxTrust S.A. Yes Luxembourg https://www.luxtrust.lu/
Malta Electronic Certification Services Ltd Yes Malta https://www.gov.mt/en/Government/Government%20of%20Malta/Ministries%20and%20Entities/Officially%20Appointed%20Bodies/Pages/Companies/Malta-Electronic-.aspx
eWitness Malta Ltd Yes Malta https://www.ewitness.eu/en/contatti/
Aangetekend B.V. Yes Netherlands https://www.e-registeredmail.com/contact/
CIBG Yes Netherlands https://www.cibg.nl/
Cleverbase ID B.V. Yes Netherlands https://cleverbase.com/en/home-2/
Digidentity B.V. Yes Netherlands https://www.digidentity.eu/
KPN B.V. Yes Netherlands https://www.kpn.com/
Ministerie van Defensie Yes Netherlands https://www.defensie.nl/
Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat Yes Netherlands https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/ministeries/ministerie-van-infrastructuur-en-waterstaat
QuoVadis Trustlink B.V. Yes Netherlands https://www.quovadisglobal.com/
Bankenes ID-tjeneste AS Yes Norway https://www.bankid.no/en/about-us/
Buypass AS Yes Norway https://www.buypass.com/
Commfides Norge AS Yes Norway https://www.commfides.com/en/
DNB Bank ASA Yes Norway https://www.dnb.no/en
Danske Bank Yes Norway https://danskebank.com/
Eika Gruppen AS Yes Norway https://eika.no/
Nordea Bank Abp filial i Norge Yes Norway https://www.nordea.com/en/about-nordea/contact/norway/
Signicat AS Yes Norway https://www.signicat.com/
SpareBank 1 Utvikling DA Yes Norway https://www.sparebank1.no/nb/bank/om-oss/om-banken/selskapsinformasjon.html
Asseco Data Systems S.A. Yes Poland https://www.assecods.pl/en/
ENIGMA Systemy Ochrony Informacji Sp. z o.o. Yes Poland https://www.enigma.com.pl/en/
EuroCert Sp. z o.o. Yes Poland https://eurocert.pl/
Krajowa Izba Rozliczeniowa S.A. Yes Poland https://www.kir.pl/en/
National Bank of Poland Yes Poland https://www.nbp.pl/homen.aspx?f=/srodeken.htm
Polish Security Printing Works Yes Poland https://www.pwpw.pl/en
ACIN iCloud Solutions, Lda Yes Poland https://www.acin.pt/
AMA – AGÊNCIA PARA A MODERNIZAÇÃO ADMINISTRATIVA I. P. Yes Portugal https://www.ama.gov.pt/
CEGER – Centro de Gestão da Rede Informática do Governo Yes Portugal https://www.ceger.gov.pt/
DigitalSign – Certificadora Digital Yes Portugal https://www.digitalsigncertificadora.com.br/pt
Instituto dos Registos e do Notariado I.P. Yes Portugal https://www.irn.mj.pt/
Swisscom IT Services Finance S.E. Yes Portugal https://multicert.com/
AlfaTrust Certification S.A. Yes Romania http://www.alfatrust.ro/
CENTRUL DE CALCUL SA Yes Romania http://www.centruldecalcul.ro/
CERTSIGN S.A. Yes Romania https://www.certsign.ro/
DigiSign S.A. Yes Romania https://digisign.ro/
Trans Sped SRL Yes Romania https://www.transsped.ro/
Disig, a.s. Yes Slovakia https://www.disig.sk/
First certification authority, a.s. Yes Slovakia https://www.sfera.sk/en/partners/first-certification-authority/
Ministry of Defence Slovak Republic Yes Slovakia https://www.mosr.sk/ministry-of-defence-of-the-slovak-republic/
National Agency for Network and Electronic Services Yes Slovakia https://www.nases.gov.sk/en/national-agency-for-network-and-electronic-services/index.html
National Security Authority Yes Slovakia https://www.cybersecurityintelligence.com/national-security-authority-nbu-4213.html
Viasec, s.r.o. Yes Slovakia https://tw.kompass.com/c/viasec-s-r-o/sk030757/
EIUS d.o.o. Yes Slovakia https://www.eius.si/
HALCOM D.D. Yes Slovakia http://www.halcom.si/en/
Ministrstvo za javno upravo Yes Slovakia https://www.developmentaid.org/#!/donors/view/182179/ministrstvo-za-javno-upravo
Ministry of Defence of Slovenia Yes Slovakia https://www.gov.si/en/state-authorities/ministries/ministry-of-defence/
NLB d.d. Yes Slovakia https://www.nlb.si/en
POŠTA SLOVENIJE d.o.o. Yes Slovakia https://en.posta.si/home
Rekono d.o.o. Yes Slovakia https://www.rekono.si/en/home-2/
Republika Slovenija Yes Slovakia https://www.gov.si/
AC Camerfirma, S.A Yes Spain https://www.camerfirma.com/
PrimeSign GmbH Yes Spain https://www.anf.es/autoridad-de-certificacion/
Austria Yes Spain https://empresite.eleconomista.es/AGENCIA-NOTARIAL-CERTIFICACION.html
Yes Yes Spain https://avancedigital.gob.es/en-us/Servicios/FirmaElectronica/Paginas/SchemeService_es.aspx
BRANDDOCS, S.L. Yes Spain https://branddocs.com/en/
COLEGIO OFICIAL DE REGISTRADORES DE LA PROPIEDAD Y MERCANTILES DE ESPA ESPAÑA Yes Spain https://www.registradores.org/
COLORIURIS, S.L Yes Spain https://www.coloriuris.net/acta-mobile/info/en/avisos-legales/
Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Médicos de España (CGCOM) Yes Spain https://www.cgcom.es/
Consejo General de la Abogacía Española Yes Spain http://www.abogacia.es/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/resumenejectuvioingles.pdf
Consorci Administració Oberta de Catalunya – CAOC Yes Spain https://www.aoc.cat/
DIGITEL ON TRUSTED SERVICES S.L.U. Yes Spain https://empresite.eleconomista.es/CREACION-BASES-DATOS-CASTILLA-LEON.html
Datenverkehr GmbH Yes Spain https://www.policia.es/
EDICOM CAPITAL, S.L. Yes Spain https://www.edicomgroup.com/en_ES/info/legal-advisor.html
ESPUBLICO SERVICIOS PARA LA ADMINISTRACIÓN S.A. Yes Spain https://www.espublico.com/
Ecertic Digital Solutions, S.L. Yes Spain https://www.ecertic.com/
Firmaprofesional, S.A. Yes Spain https://www.firmaprofesional.com/
Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre – Real Casa de la Moneda (FNMT-RCM) Yes Spain http://www.fnmt.es/
IVNOSYS SOLUCIONES S.L. Yes Spain https://www.ivnosys.com/en/home-2/
Infraestructuras y Servicios de Telecomunicaciones y Certificación SA Yes Spain http://www.dgtic.gva.es/ca/actualidad/-/asset_publisher/0YobAjUX6lT2/content/id/167695404
LLEIDANETWORKS SERVEIS TELEMATICS, S.A. Yes Spain https://www.lleida.net/en
Logalty Prueba por Interposición, S.L. Yes Spain https://www.logalty.com/en/
Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social Yes Spain http://www.mitramiss.gob.es/
SIGNATURIT SOLUTIONS, S.L. Yes Spain https://www.signaturit.com/en/contact
SIGNE S.A. Yes Spain https://www.signe.es/en/home/
SISTEMAS INFORMATICOS ABIERTOS SOCIEDAD ANONIMA Yes Spain https://empresite.eleconomista.es/SISTEMAS-INFORMATICOS-ABIERTOS.html
Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social UANATACA, S.A Yes Spain http://www.seg-social.es/
UANATACA, S.A Yes Spain https://www.uanataca.com/public/pki/PDS-TSA-EN/
VALIDATED ID, S.L Yes Spain https://www.validatedid.com/
VIAFIRMA, S.L. Yes Spain https://www.viafirma.com/es/
VINTEGRIS S.L. Yes Spain https://www.vintegris.tech/
Ziurtapen eta Zerbitzu Enpresa-Empresa de Certificación y Servicios, Izenpe, S.A Yes Spain https://empresite.eleconomista.es/ZIURTAPEN-ETA-ZERBITZU-ENPRESA-EMPRESA-CERTIFICACION-SERVICIOS-IZENPE.html
TrustWeaver AB Yes Sweden https://www.trustweaver.com/portfolio-items/opentext/
Barclays Bank Plc Yes UK https://home.barclays/
British Telecommunications Plc Yes UK https://www.btplc.com/
Digidentity BV Yes UK https://www.digidentity.eu/
Entrust (Europe) Ltd Yes UK https://www.entrustdatacard.com/
Experian Ltd Yes UK https://www.experian.com/
Health & Social Care Information Centre Yes UK https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/health-and-social-care-information-centre
Home Office Technology Yes UK https://hodigital.blog.gov.uk/
Morpho UK Limited Yes UK https://beta.companieshouse.gov.uk/company/06195781
Verizon UK Ltd Yes UK https://www.verizon.com/about/careers/locations/reading-uk

“Digital Signature” means a transformation of a message using an asymmetric cryptosystem such that a person having the initial message and the signer’s public key can accurately determine
License of intellectual property, IP transfers and employee invention agreements (Patents Act, 1978, the Design Act, 1993, the Trade Marks Act, 1993 and the Copyright Act 1978)
Bills of exchange (e.g., cheques) (excluded from ECTA)

DISCLAIMER: This information is intended to help you understand the legal framework of electronic signatures. However, eMudhra cannot provide legal advice. The law of electronic signatures is constantly evolving. This guide is not intended as a legal advice and should not serve as a substitute for professional legal advice. You should consult an attorney regarding any specific legal concerns.
eMudhra, and all associates including agents, officers, employees or affiliates, are not liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary or consequential damages.

ABOUT THE GUIDE

The eSignature Legality Guide is the result of legal research into the laws and practices regarding eSignature on a country-by-country basis. Each country-level analysis was conducted by local law firms located in that country, in that country’s local language. This legal analysis was then supplemented with complementary research on eSignature and digital signature technology standards conducted by independent technology experts. Together, this information is provided as a public resource to understand eSignature legality, and clarify some of the common misconceptions about international eSignature legality.

COURT-ADMISSIBLE

A basic measure of eSignature legality in a country is whether courts will admit eSignatures as evidence in court. In most countries in the world, an eSignature cannot be rejected simply because it is electronic, meaning that it should be admissible, subject to proof. Learn more about how DocuSign helps you prove an eSignature validity in court, below.

GENERAL BUSINESS USE

While there are exceptions for very specific types of transactions, eSignatures, independent of the underlying technology, may be used for the majority of general business transactions in most countries. Issues that may restrict general business use include local technology requirements or other restrictions on special transactions types. Learn more about specific transaction types, below.

E-SIGNATURE LEGAL MODEL

‘Tiered’ countries recognize Qualified Electronic Signature (QES, or the locally named equivalent) as a distinct type of eSignature. In these countries, a QES has special legal status in the form of presumed authenticity, and may be legally required for a few, specific transaction types. In spite of this, a non-QES eSignature can still be submitted as evidence in court even in Tiered countries, so long as the party presenting it has sufficient evidence to prove that it is valid. Countries imposing QES standards often struggle to promote electronic business transactions, especially across country borders. ‘Open’ countries have no such technology requirements or eSignature types that receive special legal status. Learn more about eSignature legality at https://www.emsigner.com/

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